# Carbon dioxide, water and temperature

One of the mainstays of the Global Warming scam is the correlation that has been established retrospectively between carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and the temperature( see, for example, Earth in the Balance) . Very convincing graphs show that one closely follows the other. Real scientists know that correlation is not causation. Furthermore, they would only be startled if there were not a correlation. The reason for this is that the solubility of virtually any gas in any liquid bears a strong inverse relationship with temperature.

There is no need to believe the scientists, when you can perform a simple experiment in your own kitchen to prove it to yourself. First boil a kettle. You will notice that it begins to make a hissing noise as soon as you turn it on. This is not steam, but air coming out of solution as the water heats up. As the boiling point is reached a more vigorous bubbling occurs, which is the generation of steam. If you turn it on again a few seconds later the hissing stage does not occur before the bubbling commences. Leave it for a minute or two, however, and the hissing recurs, which shows how rapidly the air goes back into solution.

Now, to perform the experiment, take a bottle of carbonated water from the refrigerator and pour a glass, then put a teaspoon into it. Very slowly tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide nucleate upon the surface of the spoon. Now warm the bowl of the spoon up by holding it in the hot water of the kettle for a few seconds, then return it to the carbonated water. Large bubbles of CO2 form and rise vigorously to the surface. The heated water around the spoon cannot retain the amount of carbon dioxide that saturated it at the original temperature, so it emerges as gas.

At the surface of the sea, the dissolved gases are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. The amount of each gas in the water is determined by its proportion (the partial pressure) and its solubility, which show a high inverse temperature dependence. Carbon dioxide actually forms the very weak carbonic acid when it dissolves in water, but this dissociates very readily to release the gas.

What is the general principle behind all this? Well, basically there are five states of matter – solid, liquid, gas, plasma and the fifth state. The state of any bit of matter is determined by the relationship between the kinetic energy (temperature) and the potential energy (binding forces). As the temperature increases from absolute zero it reaches a point at which the bouncing about of the molecules (temperature) is enough to break up the solid crystalline or amorphous structure and the substance becomes liquid. At higher temperatures the bouncing overcomes the binding force of the liquid and it becomes a gas. Still higher and the binding forces of the molecules themselves are overcome and we have plasma. The fifth state, which occurred at the big bang, is such that the binding forces of the atoms and nuclei themselves are overcome and matter becomes a mass of elementary particles.

Thus, in our own world, higher temperatures favour the gaseous state and we get more atmospheric carbon dioxide.